We are searching data for your request:
“Oh, we have started phytophthora,” the neighbors are worried. I went to one neighbor, to another, visited several friends, looked. Everyone has the same picture: on the leaves of tomatoes there are light and yellowish spots, and from the inside there is a gray velvety bloom with an olive tint. The most interesting thing is that such a picture was in all the greenhouses that I visited, and all their owners were convinced that it was late blight. However, they are all wrong.
This is not late blight at all, but the so-called leaf mold. Scientifically - cladosporia, or brown spot. It is not as harmful as late blight because it does not damage the fruit. But then, when this disease develops, new fruits are no longer tied. The flowers dry up and fall off, and the set fruit grows very slowly. As a result, the yield of diseased plants is sharply reduced. The earlier the plant got sick, the less harvest it has.
Cladosporium - a tomato disease that loves warmth very much, and it develops in our area only in greenhouses. For the successful course of the disease, high humidity is required. Only plants with weakened immunity are sick, which do not like something. In the open field, tomatoes do not get sick with them. As it turned out in practice, cladosporia is a very common disease in our greenhouses. Anyway, I saw this disease much more often than late blight.
The disease begins with the fact that light spots of a vague shape appear on the lower leaves. At this time, the plants grow vigorously, bloom profusely. The first clusters of fruits are tied. Gardeners are happy, so they do not pay attention to the spots on the leaves. This is a big mistake, because it is at this time that the alarm must be sounded, the struggle must begin. Those gardeners who began to fight at the beginning of the disease usually conquered it. And they saved themselves by spraying the plants twice with Bordeaux mixture. If the disease was not recognized in time, then further light spots begin to gradually turn yellow, a clearly visible velvet bloom appears on the inside of the sheet.
This has already formed a mushroom plantation. As soon as you touch it, mushroom spores fly in all directions, which settle around on the leaves, on the soil, on the elements of the greenhouse and even on our clothes and tools. Neighboring plants are infected, the disease spreads rapidly from the bottom up, affecting more and more plants. Later, the leaves affected by the fungus dry out. This is already a very advanced version of the disease. Now it cannot be defeated by any spraying. You can only suspend it, completely stopping watering. One consolation: where there is cladosporia, there is no phytophthora. These mushrooms are not friends.
Disease spores hibernate on plant debris, on the soil surface, on the details of the greenhouse. They even manage to get on the seeds. Therefore, it is very difficult to get rid of this disease, if it has appeared. It is necessary to rinse all parts of the greenhouse structure with copper sulfate, change the topsoil in the greenhouse, pickle seeds before sowing - all this is laborious and ineffective. The disease will haunt your charges every year. It can be suspended by a sharp decrease in irrigation, which moisten the soil surface and thereby increase the humidity of the air. Since our gardeners most often have no more than one greenhouse, the option of changing the place of tomato planting disappears.
You can do prevention. 10-15 days after planting the seedlings in the ground, when it takes root in a new place, it is necessary to carry out preventive spraying with 1% Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride. Then every 10 days, spray the plants with garlic tincture. Perhaps these activities will help, and perhaps not very much, especially if you miss at least one scheduled spraying.
Fortunately, there are a small number of cultivars and some modern hybrids that are resistant to this disease. So they will have to be limited so that the joy of growing does not turn into a long war with the disease.
When I started looking through catalogs varieties of tomatoes, in order to acquaint respected readers with varieties resistant to cladosporia, it turned out that there are several races of this disease. In addition, in most catalogs they write, after words of praise about the variety, simply: "Resistant to disease." And that's all. In practice, I know that almost all the varieties I tested with this characteristic were sick with cladosporiosis.
In foreign catalogs, they indicate to which specific disease the variety or hybrid is resistant, even the race is indicated. We rarely do it. Nevertheless, we managed to unearth several varieties. Here they are: varieties Admiralteisky, Cherry red, Ogorodnik; F1 hybrids: Blagovest (resistant to cladosporiosis race 5), Verlioka plus, Gunin, Donna Rosa, Druzhok, Crown, Kostroma, Red Arrow, Swallow, Leopold, Lelya, La la fa, Master, Margarita, Olya, Paradise delight, Northern Express , Titanic, Favorite, Flamingo, Energy.
Of the newer hybrids, one can name Torbay F1, Octopus F1 and Premier F1, on which I did not see traces of the disease, while the neighboring plants were completely affected by the disease. This year, I have not seen traces of the disease on the new variety of Handbag. There are probably other varieties and hybrids that are unknown to me.
Tomatoes can be severely affected by nighttime spring frosts. Control measures. In northern Ukraine, tomatoes are planted in open ground no earlier than May 20. Earlier plantings should be protected with foil or agrofiber. Before planting, the seedlings must be hardened, and in the evening before frost, pour warm water.
These symptoms can occur due to insufficient watering at high temperatures, with a lack of copper, and when plantings are affected by the leaf roll virus.
Control measures. Since the virus is usually transmitted through seeds, which are often supplied pickled and coated, water the plantings and feed them with micronutrients.
The disease late blight of tomatoes manifests itself during the period of fruit formation at high air humidity (above 80%) and significant fluctuations in the average daily temperature from 22 ° C during the day to 12 ° C at night, which is observed in the second half of the growing season in open areas. We offer a photo of late blight of tomatoes.
The sign says that as soon as late blight is found on potatoes in the field (as a rule, in the second half of the growing season), then expect soon this disease in the garden. In the morning dew appears, which contributes to the infection of plants and the spread of the disease. Therefore, the fight against late blight of tomatoes should be timely.
Phoma rot is a disease caused by the fungus Phoma destructiva. It affects fruits, both unripe and mature. It is possible to determine the phomosis by the characteristic brown spot that appears near the stalk. Then it increases in diameter, but not much. The stain usually reaches a size of about 3 centimeters. The main spread of rot occurs inside the fruit.
The spread of the disease is facilitated by high humidity and fertilizing rich in nitrogen.
As a preventive measure, the soil is disinfected, and it will not be superfluous to treat the inside of the greenhouse with a disinfectant solution.
Treatment is carried out with drugs: Fundazol, Zaslon, Oxyhom, Bordeaux mixture. Diseased fruits must be collected and destroyed.
Tomatoes and late blight... One of the most common tomato diseases is late blight. Its manifestation is characterized by the formation of hard spots on the fruits, which also spread to the pulp of the fruit. For more protection against disease, hybrid tomato varieties should be grown as they are less susceptible to disease.
The methods of combating late blight should include spraying with the "Zaslon" agent, apply. After the plants are treated with a "barrier", they should be treated with the "Barrier" agent, which also helps to protect against late blight.
Tomatoes affected by late blight
It is necessary to use "Barrier" in the ratio of 3 tablespoons to 10 liters of water, after which it is necessary to spray the plants. An undeniable effect can be obtained from the drug "Oxyhom", it is produced in tablets, they must be used at the rate of 2 tablets per 10 liters of water. This drug should be used before flowering and when signs appear indicating that the plant has become infected with late blight.
Top rot. Another disease that tomatoes often suffer from is top rot. Its signs are deepened spots, black or shiny, and as a result, the tomatoes rot right on the bush. Sometimes the appearance of apical rot is accompanied by watery areas with a pronounced rotten smell. The root cause of the disease is a lack of moisture, as well as a large amount of calcium and nitrogen in the soil.
Methods of dealing with this ailment include abundant watering. Spraying with calcium nitrate is considered a good way to eradicate the disease. During the fight against the disease, it is necessary to destroy the infected fruit by burning.
Leaf mold. Tomatoes grown in film greenhouses often develop leaf mold, the symptoms of which are leaves with a velvety brown coating on the inside of the leaf. This plant ailment is easily tolerated on human clothing, during watering, and also persists on fallen leaves and in the soil.
Methods for dealing with leaf mold are reducing the amount of water during irrigation and disinfecting greenhouses. It is also recommended to treat the plants with a solution of 1 tablespoon of copper sulfate, 1 tablespoon of liquid soap and 10 liters of water, in this solution it is possible to replace copper sulfate with 3 tablespoons of ammonium sulfur. And at intervals of one week, treat with the "Barrier" preparation.
Different stages of damage by the mosaic virus
Mosaic - a disease that affects not only greenhouse tomatoes, but also outdoor tomatoes. The signs of the mosaic virus are considered to be wrinkling of the leaves, accompanied by the appearance of yellow-green spots. Mosaic ultimately leads to the complete death of the plant, so this problem should be taken seriously.
The mosaic should be fought by burning the affected plants, and for prevention, it is necessary to spray the plants with skim milk. To avoid this infection, it is necessary to pickle the seeds with a solution of potassium permanganate before sowing, at the rate of 1 gram of potassium permanganate per 100 grams of water. Then the seedlings are watered with a solution of the same composition, but you need to mix 1 gram of permanganate solution with 10 liters of water. It should also be understood that pinching should be carried out without contact with the sap of the plant, since the sap is the source of the spread of the disease. It is recommended to grow hybrid varieties as they are less susceptible to this infection.
Brown spot considered the most damaging disease in greenhouse tomatoes. It is accompanied by the appearance of light gray spots on the underside of the leaves. Gradually, spots begin to appear on the upper side of the leaf. The factors in which the disease begins to progress at a rapid pace are temperatures of 20-25 degrees and high humidity.
Fight should be done using a foundation, while watering should be stopped and ripe tomatoes should be picked.
Gray rot - a fungal disease, which affects the fruits, which are covered with spots, and at any stage of ripening. Usually the disease is found during the rainy seasons. Its symptoms are very similar to those of late blight, but unlike it, any plant grown on the site can be the causative agent of gray rot.
To combat gray mold, it is necessary to spray plants with fungicides and "Barrier", and it is also necessary to remove all affected plant organs: fruits, leaves, stems, etc.
Root rot. Another ailment common in greenhouse tomatoes is root rot. The plant begins to lose its stamina and gradually withers away. Cucumbers also often get sick with the same disease, it is for this reason that it is not recommended to plant tomatoes in the place of cucumbers and vice versa.
Before planting tomatoes, you should disinfect the soil, this advice is especially relevant if you have cucumbers growing in this place. Disinfection is carried out using a solution of copper sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). This replaces the top layer of the soil. Sick tomato bushes should be treated with the "Zaslon" solution and sprinkled with "Barrier".
Brown rot, the second name is phomosis. This is another type of fungal disease, which affects only tomato fruits. This fungus appears as a large spot at the base of the fruit stem. The disease occurs in the initial and final stages of maturation of tomatoes grown in the open field. Fruits that are sick in a green state, as a rule, do not ripen, since the tomatoes fall off. The infection also penetrates deep into the fruit, thereby affecting the inner tissue of the tomato.
When fighting against phomoses, it is necessary to remove and burn the fruits affected by the fungus, it is also worth abandoning the enrichment of the soil with the help of manure. It is recommended to treat the plants with foundation and disinfect the soil.
Tomato pests include bear (dressing), caterpillars, whiteflies and wireworms.
Medvedki most often appear in areas close to water bodies, as well as well-moistened and fertilized places with manure. Medvedka is a brown insect, about 5 centimeters long, with pronounced elytra and legs designed for digging the soil. The bear, as a rule, lives at a depth of up to twenty centimeters, where it lays eggs, usually up to 300 pieces, then larvae form from the eggs. Many other useful crops in our gardens are also susceptible to attacks by this insect.
Fighting the bear can and should be done with a solution of 3 glasses of vinegar per 10 liters of water. You can use the drug "Thunder", in accordance with the instructions. The solution is poured into holes, they are clearly visible on the soil surface. Each hole requires 0.5 liters of solution.
Wireworms are the larvae of click beetles, they are yellowish in color and up to 20 mm long, they harm tomato roots, sometimes penetrate into the stem and destroy the plant from the inside.
FROM wireworms fight in a very cunning way. Using, so to speak, bait in the form of pieces of raw potatoes strung on sticks, these sticks are buried in the ground to a depth of 20 cm, after three weeks of being in this form, the sticks should be pulled out and burned along with wireworms, which will be very abundant on the potatoes. It is worth noting that the sticks during the entire procedure should stick out of the ground, respectively, their length should be about 30 cm. The drug "Bazudin" copes well with these pests. It is usually mixed with sand; wood chips can serve as an alternative to sand. This mixture is buried shallowly into the soil next to the plant.
Gnawing scoops - a type of caterpillar that harms all cultivated plants found in our gardens, tomatoes and cucumbers especially suffer from them. These tracks are 40 mm long.Their color is very different: velvety black, earthy gray.
These pests are destroyed by spraying with Strela at the rate of 50 grams per 10 liters of water. With the help of this effective preparation, plants not only get rid of rodents, but also receive a kind of foliar fertilization.
Today tomatoes are one of the most popular foods that are always found on the table. Only sometimes it is quite difficult to grow them even in a greenhouse, as there are times when white spots may appear on the strongest and healthiest bushes. And not many gardeners know what caused this, and how to deal with them. White leaves of tomatoes in a greenhouse - what could be the reason?
Reasons for the appearance of white leaves in tomatoes in a greenhouse
General rules for the prevention of tomato diseases are mandatory for any gardener.